Dr. Dunham (1828-1877) graduated from Columbia University with Honours in 1847. In 1850 he received M.D. degree at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York.
List of all Homeopathic Materia Medica: Dr. Clarke, Boericke, Farrington, Allen, Dunham, N M Choudhury, Nash, Boger, Lippe, Mure, Tyler, Constantine Hering, Kent, Homeopathic Materia Medica, Online Materia Medica
The whole plant is used in medicine. It has always been known as a dangerous poison, classed among the “narcotics” or the “cerebral stimulants.” In the seventeenth century first used in medicine to resolve tumors and “cure cancer.”
The herbivorous animals devour Belladonna with impunity.
Cases of poisoning with Belladonna are abundant in medical literature. It is from a collation of these cases, along with a very thorough and exhaustive proving on the healthy subject by Hahnemann and his pupils, that we derive our knowledge of its physiological action.
As this drug is in very common use it may be well to make a minute and careful study of its action. As a preliminary, the following sketch of the action of a poisonous dose may be of interest:
The eye became dry, the conjunctival vessels fully injected ; there was a total absence of lachrymation, and motion was attended with a sense of dryness and stiffness. The face was red and turgid, and the temperature and color of the surface considerably augmented. The face, upper extremities and trunk exhibited a diffuse scarlet efflorescence, studded with innumerable papillae very closely resembling the rash of scarlatina The pulse was full, from 120 to 130. The feeling in the head was that of violent congestion, a full, tense, throbbing state of the cerebral vessels,— identically the same sensation that would be produced by a ligature thrown about the neck and impeding the return of the venous circulation. The tongue, mouth and fauces were as devoid of moisture as if they had been composed of burnt shoe-leather. The secretions of the glands of the mouth and of the saliva were entirely suspended. A draught of water, instead of giving relief, seemed only to increase the unctuous clammy state of the mucous membrane. About the pharynx this sensation was most distressing. It induced a constant attempt at deglutition, and finally excited suffocation and spasms of the fauces and glottis, renewed at every effort to swallow. A little saliva, white and round like a ball of cotton, was now and then spat up. The power of Belladonna over the secretion of urine seems very great. I am confident I passed in the course of an hour three pints of urine, accompanied by a slight strangury at the neck of the bladder.
This hasty description by an allopathic observer corroborates the observations of homeopathists.
The action of Belladonna on the system is so general and so complex as almost to defy analysis.
1. On the vital forces of animal life its action is preeminent. The special senses are all affected as regards the intensity, and perverted as regards the character, of their function. The voluntary mus cular system is affected, tonic and clonic spasm being produced. The involuntary muscular fiber is affected, as we infer from relaxation or abnormal rigidity of the sphincters, dilatation of the iris, pal pitation of the heart, etc., and throbbing of the arteries. The sensorium is eminently affected, delirium, illusions, exaltations, mania, stupor, being different phases of Belladonna poisonings.
Yet, violent as this action is, we see no permanent paralyses.
2. On the organic substance Belladonna acts less profoundly. No evidence of any dyscrasia. The skin is affected as by the scarlatinal eruption. The sub-cutaneous and sub-mucous cellular tissues are inflamed, as also the true skin,—witness the erysipelas. The bladder and the uterus, and also the lining membrane of the rectum, are structurally altered.
3. Sphere of action. Chiefly the skin and mucous membrane of mouth, fauces, genito-urinary organs and the eye; muscular system, nervous system in every branch. Digestive organs not affected, nor the serous and osseous and fibrous tissues. Glands eminently affected ; ovaries, parotid, lymphatic. Uterus and appendages also; skin, erysipelas.
Periodicity not marked; cough worse at night.
Characteristics. Pains gradually increase till intolerable; then suddenly decline and re-appear elsewhere. Painful spots, sore on gentle pressure, yet tolerating firm pressure, as ischia and ovary. Always attended by red face, full, hard pulse, throbbing carotids, wild delirium.
HEAD. SENSORIUM. 1. Dizziness, as if all things were going round and swimming before the eyes, such as one feels after whirling around, with a turning in the epigastrium. It occurs also while walking, with incoherent speech. It occurs on moving and when at rest; is better in the open air and worse in the chamber. It is conjoined with feeling of stupidity in the head.
2. Confusion of the senses a whole day; he knows not what he does; the whole head is confused. A feeling as if drunken; as during a debauch, immediately after a meal. Confusion and dullness, as if a pressing cloud were drawn over the forehead. These are aggravated by alcohol and by motion. As concomitant symptoms, are noted swelling of the cervical glands and swollen, red face.
3. Indisposed to mental labor, feels unstrung.
4. Perception confused; he knows not whether he is asleep or awake; still he dreams, though awake. Elevated, deceptive fantasies; he sees and hears objects not present, not existing. Primary action, probably to excite and give fantasies. 5. Lies often unconscious; convulsions.
6. Memory enfeebled during the headache; generally enfeebled.
Headache distinctly marked.
I. Consider first the parts of the head affected:
1. The whole head, by a feeling of heaviness and pressure, as if drunken, or pressed by a stone; a pressure as if the head were screwed together and made narrower, and a consequent feeling of pressure outward, as if the head would burst. Altogether the mass of symptoms, however, relate to the forehead, orbits and temples; the right orbit and supra-orbital region being especially attacked. We find:
2. In the forehead exclusively the heaviness and pressing pain. The pressing, as of a weight, is distinct and marked, pressing down so low as to hinder the opening of the eyes, with a feeling as if something had sunk down in the forehead. The pain affects the eyes also, which, from the intensity of the pain, are kept shut; they are painful to the touch. Pressing pain in the forehead and frontal eminences, ceasing occasionally only to return again with greater intensity. This pressing is from within outward in a majority of cases. This pain in the forehead is aggravated by motion, removed by lying down to recur on rising. Not affected by eating, etc.; made worse by the open air.
3. In the orbits. Just over the orbits and just over the root of the nose, the pressing and pressing drawing pain is most intense (458). There is also a sticking and tearing and a drawing pressing from the temples to the orbits, especially on the right side.
4. In the vertex a single symptom, a digging and tearing pain and sensitiveness.
II. The kinds of pain are various, being mov able and stationary; the latter predominate. They are heaviness and pressing, which are felt in the whole head, but especially in the forehead. Gnaw ing and throbbing, all felt more in the frontal than in other regions.
The former are sticking, tearing and jerking pains.
From within outward, as if the brain were too large.
As concomitant symptoms, are noted, acuteness of the senses, eyes must be kept closed; great irritability about trifles.
The symptoms are aggravated in general by—
1. Stooping forward, which causes a feeling as if all would pass out through the forehead.
2. Coughing or any sudden motion which shocks the head.
3. Stepping when walking, he feels the brain QUASI rise and fall with every step.
4. Rising up, from sitting or reclining posture.
Ameliorated by lying down and by bending backward.
In addition to this, throbbing of the vessels is a marked symptom of Belladonna, occurring in the head and whole body simultaneously.
Heat in the head, redness of the face with the headaches.
HEAD. EXTERNAL. Heat of the head a constant symptom. The pains in the scalp and forehead are chiefly drawing and drawing together or contracting pain and a cramp-like, compressive pain. These occur chiefly in the right side of the head. The compressive, cramp-like pain occurs in the frontal eminence and draws downward over the zygoma to the inferior maxilla (a kind of neuralgia).
The forehead itches and is sensitive to the lightest touch.
Pimples occur on the temples, and the head swells and the body is red.
FACE. All symptoms agree ; the face is red, hot and swollen.
The redness is of various degrees, from a scarlet, confined to a small part of the cheek, to a deep, livid, bluish-red, pervading the whole face and invading the chest. The heat is of various degrees, felt generally in the parts that are red, while in other parts, the cheeks especially, there is boring and throbbing pain.
The swelling may be scarcely perceptible, or intense, occupying cheeks, nose and lips; hard and hot. Aggravated by motion and touch, and accompanied by violent headaches and by paleness and coolness of the rest of the body.
EYES. The eyes appear protruding, with greatly dilated, insensible pupils; under still more powerful doses the eyes are distorted, with red and swollen face ; they glisten and move convulsively with convulsive movements of the hands. Morbid changes are manifest. The eyes become injected, with pressing pains. They are inflamed, with enlarged veins and itching and sticking pains and increased lachrymation. The left caruncle is inflamed and suppurates, with burning pain, and a white vesicle forms on the left (much dilated) pupil.
The sensations vary from those of slight congestion to those of violent inflammation; pressing, as when hard spring water gets into the eye; pressing deep in the orbit when the eye is closed; these are attended by lachrymation. The pains are these sensations intensified, with the peculiar indications of inflammation superadded. Pressing pain, as if the eyes were full of sand, compelling to rub them; and heat, as if they were surrounded by vapor. Pain, as if the eyes were torn out; then, again, as if they were pressed into the head; and in addition, a pain pressing from the forehead upon the eyes. Tearing pain in the eyes, proceeding from the left canthus. A biting in both eyes, with burning and sticking from without inward. Pain in the orbits, as if the eyes were torn out; sometimes, again, as if they would be pressed into the head, with a pressure on the eyes coming from the forehead (458). Burning with itching; desire to rub the eyes and relief thereby.
The secretion is early affected. First, a burning dryness, then involuntary lachrymation, with the pressing in the eyes. It is altered in character; the eyes are stuck together by pus in the morning.
LIDS. The lids partake of the peculiar aspect of the eye; they are dilated, stand wide open. Various sensations are noted, both nervous and inflammatory. Trembling and twitching; heaviness; they fall shut in the morning with lachrymation. Throbbing pain, with inflammation and lachrymation. Itching and sticking, relieved by rubbing; painful to the touch.
SIGHT. The sight is specifically affected in a striking manner. Not only in degree but also in kind is the action of the optic nerve influenced.
As to degree, I. E., in sensibility, it is first intensified, photophobia; and second blunted, hence diminished vision with dilated, immovable pupils; can see nothing but the white margin of the book, which appears black. As to kind, there are abnormal action and illusions. As to the former, objects appear double. Objects when near at hand are not seen at all; when distant they appear double. They appear manifold, are seen obscurely and upside down. As to the latter, letters tremble and are particolored, gold and blue. Bright red rings are seen around the candle. Flames and clouds appear. A white star is seen on the ceiling and light silver clouds.
EARS. EXTERNAL. Various pains about the region of the ear involving the zygomatic region, the parotid gland, the maxillary articulation, the cartilage of the ear, and the muscles behind the ear down to the neck.
These pains are, as to the zygomatic process, squeezing pressure on the left zygoma, tearing and drawing and pressure under the right zygoma. In the maxillary joint a violent sticking extending into the ear, induced by chewing and continuing after chewing; fine stickings. In the parotid, stitches extending into the ear; violent stitch extending into the external ear, where it vanishes like a cramp, returning the same day at the same hour. In the cartilage of ear a tearing pain, and pressure in the lower and posterior part. In the muscles behind the ear down the neck, pain as if strongly pressed; the same in muscles of forehead. See below, under internal ear.
MEATUS. Stitches in external meatus, unpleasant pressure like boring with finger, as if from pressure.
INTERNAL. Various sensations and pains. A pinching first in right, then in left ear, just after swallowing; unpleasant feeling in right ear as if torn violently out of head. Alternate tearing out and pressing in pain in ears and temples, alternating with similar pains in the orbits. Earache in left ear, sharp shocks, with squeezing; in right ear boring pain, pressing, tearing behind the right ear; a fugitive stitch from ear to chin; stitches also with eructations tasting of food. Drawing from ear to nape. Violent pressure in mastoid process below ear and cutting shocks in it.
SECRETION. Discharge of purulent moisture from the ears for twenty days.
SENSE OF HEARING, SENSIBILITY. Deafness, with stitches in the ear. Increased sensibility (secondary probably, D.). Deafness as if a skin were stretched before the ear.
VARIOUS ILLUSIONS OF HEARING. First, noise of trumpets and rushing in the ears; then a buzzing and humming, worst when sitting, better when standing and lying, still better when walking. Rushing noise, with dizziness and bellyache. Morning, immediately after waking, a rushing and bubbling in front of the ears.
GENERAL COMPLICATIONS. 1. Of the ears and temples pains with orbit-pains. 2. Pains in muscles of neck and occiput. 3. Ear-pains with swallowing and eructations.
NOSE. In appearance the nose becomes suddenly red at the point, with burning sensation. Various pains and sensations are produced. In the bones of the nose a pressing pain just above the ala, pain as if beaten when touched; above the left half of the nose a painful drawing, a tickling removed by rubbing; in the point of the nose stitches throughout the night and burning with sudden redness.
Eruptions appear on nose as well as lips, etc. At the root of the nose two small red pimples, painful only when touched, as if ulcerated; and on cheeks and nose papules, which quickly fill with pus and cover themselves with a crust.
SENSE OF SMELL. Increased sensibility; smell of smoke from tobacco and soot is intolerable. Abnormal smells as of rotten eggs (early).
NOSTRILS, PAINS. Left nostril painful, ulcerated together in morning. Painful ulceration of nostrils just on the side where they join the lip. Nostrils and corner of lip ulcerate, but neither itch nor pain. Epistaxis night and morning.
LIPS. Majority of the symptoms are those of organic nature, eruptions or other cutaneous affections. On the upper lip, papules near the ala of the nose, covered with a crust, and a corresponding one on the lower lip, with a biting pain as if from salt water. Papules itching when touched. On lower lip burning pain and little vesicles; between lip and chin pustules with burning pain, especially at night. In the corner of the mouth ulcerated spot with tearing pain; rawness as if about to ulcerate. Little pale red papules painless. There are thus eruptions about the external surface of the lips; these are papular, running sometimes into ulcers which cover themselves with a crust. The pains are drawing, tearing, biting and burning. In addition the upper lip swells and becomes red. Functionally the lips are affected, spasmodic motions are observed, also distortions of various degree and foaming at the mouth.
CHIN. Eruptions as on the lips, with similar pains.
JAWS. Symptoms referring to motion of the jaws, from sensation of spasm up to absolute lockjaw, resisting violent extraneous force. A large furuncle on the angle of jaw, hard and painless till touched.
GLANDS OF NECK. Drawing and tensive pains in the glands ; the glands are swollen and painful at night, but not on swallowing (400-403).
(403-413.) MUSCLES OF NECK. Spasmodic tension and cramp-like sensation in the muscles of the neck (without motion). Actual spasm, the head is drawn backward, burying in the pillow, with drawing and pressing pains in the muscles of right side; stiffness of muscles. In the nape of the neck, close to the occiput, a pressing pain not affected by motion; and lower down, about the second and third cervical vertebrae, violent frequent stitches by holding head erect. On the side of the neck, arterial pulsation is felt. In the laryngeal region pressing sensation on the left side, increased by touch; fine stickings in throat-pit.
TEETH. As a generality, various symptoms taken from records of poisoning in very high degree, whole muscular system being excited to spasm. Gnashing of teeth, with foaming at the mouth, smelling like foul eggs (epilepsy) and spasm of right arm.
GUMS. Painful swelling on the right side, with fever and chilliness. Vesicle under one of the front teeth, painful as if burnt. The gums are painful to the touch, as if ulcerated; they are hot and throb, with pain in the throat. Gums bleed easily by a decayed tooth, without pain.
TOOTHACHE. Various kinds of pain, the symptoms being distinctly marked. The pains are variously characterized, according to their intensity; the majority are drawing; then tearing, jerkings, borings and soreness; digging pains are also mentioned. They occur for the most part in decayed teeth, and if severe, the pain extends to the whole row of teeth in that jaw on that side; the right side is affected by preference. If the pain is severe, or after it has lasted some time, the gums and cheek become swollen, painful and hot to the touch.
The pain gradually rises in severity to a great height, and gradually subsides.
It occurs chiefly at night, or, at least, is much worse at night, preventing sleep; still, it never entirely ceases during the day, to come again at night. It is aggravated by touch, by the open air, and after eating, although often during the act of eating it is relieved (perhaps because nervous system being affected attention is withdrawn). The chief complications are with pain in the ear. A violent toothache is attended by stickings in the ear; the pains seem to shoot down from the ear to the teeth.
MOUTH. Sensation of breadth and depth, as if the tongue were lower down than usual.
TONGUE. Various sensations, as if lower down in the mouth than usual, as if asleep, numb or dead; or covered with fur in the morning, and a feeling of coldness or dryness on the anterior half of the tongue. Various pains; painful to the touch; biting pain, as from a vesicle in the middle of the white-coated tongue; on the tip, a feeling as of a vesicle, burning when touched. Fissured, white-coated (3d Stapf); the papillae are of a deep red, inflamed and greatly enlarged (3d Stapf). The tongue trembles and stutters.
SPEECH. Stammering, weakness of speech, with full consciousness and dilated pupils. Paralytic weakness of speech organs. Difficult speech, dyspnoea and weariness succeeding the anxiety. Speech difficult, the voice is piping. Low speech, attended by headache, as if brain were pressed out close over the orbits in the forehead, which prevents opening the eyes and compels to lie down, with very great contraction of pupils.
SECRETION OF MUCUS AND SALIVA. Increased, with fissured, white tongue; increased and tenacious hanging and running out of the mouth. Much mucus, especially morning, sometimes with a foul taste; thickened in the throat and like glue on the tongue ; he desires to wet the mouth. In the morning, full of mucus; he has to wash it out; disappears after eating. Slimy mouth after waking, with pressive headache. It is also diminished, at least in so far as sensation goes; the mouth feels very dry, with irritable disposition, yet mouth and tongue are moist to appearance; the lips are hot and scaly.
The mucus and saliva are more frequently altered ; thus, the saliva becomes tenacious, yellowish white, coating the tongue, tenacious, thick like glue; he thinks it must smell offensively to others. In connection, it may be observed that the orifice of Steno’s duct is painful as if abraded.
In the whole mouth and throat dryness, with stickiness and great thirst; the dryness is so great it seems to constrict the larynx and fauces, yet he can swallow liquids, and in most cases the tongue, although feeling as if dry, is really moist.
It is to be remarked that the tenacious foul and foul-smelling slime is found in the mouth chiefly in the morning, removed by eating, etc.
THROAT IN GENERAL. A marked affection. First as to the parts affected.
FAUCES IN GENERAL. Various pains, sensation of dryness and burning in the throat and on the tongue, not relieved by drinking, but diminished for a moment by sugar. Notwithstanding this feeling of dryness the tongue is moist; even food and drink cause a burning as of alcohol in the mouth. (The roof of mouth and palate as if sore and excoriated; painful when touched by tongue and when chewing, as if skin were off; and on swallowing, a scraped feeling as if raw.)
Tearing on the inner surface of corner of left maxilla, in left tonsil and behind it, not affected by touch, worse by swallowing.
Sticking pain in the pharynx, and pain as if from internal swelling, felt only when swallowing and on turning the head and by feeling the side of throat, not during repose or speech; violent sticking on swallowing or breathing. Stickings on left side, equally when swallowing and when not doing so.
Scraping, soreness and constriction, with heat about the throat.
An internal swelling is felt, especially on swallowing and on external touch.
Throat in general is sore, more on the left side; worse on swallowing and spitting; feeling of internal swelling. (499, 500-503, 512, 515-517.)
Throat feels constricted, violent constriction of throat and oesophagus hindering deglutition ; painful narrowing and constriction of the throat, with tension and straining on every motion like swallowing, even if nothing is swallowed; even when really swallowing it is not more painful. (516.) The feeling of constriction is in itself painful. On swallowing, a feeling in the throat as if everything were too narrow and constricted so that nothing would pass down.
TONSILS. Fine tearing in the left tonsil, not affected by touch, worse by swallowing. (492, 507.) Inflammation of the tonsils, going on in four days to suppuration ; during these days he could swallow nothing.
OESOPHAGUS. Sensation of constriction, both painful in itself and painful on swallowing and breathing. (513, 517.)
EPIGLOTTIS. A scratching pain in the region of the epiglottis, as if it were raw and sore, following immediately after a constriction of the oesophagus (which constriction is excited chiefly by swallowing.)
Second, as to the functions particularly modified: I. Vegetative.
DEGLUTITION. Increased activity. There is a constant inclination to swallow, a feeling as if he would suffocate if he did not swallow.
Difficult, yet painless. This is observed in one case. Not so frequent, however, as difficult and painful on account of constriction, soreness and internal swelling. Difficult to swallow solid food. He chews food without swallowing it on account of constriction.
Frequent sticking fingers in throat and feeling the neck while unconscious; and hydrophobia. (These symptoms are quoted from allopathic authorities.)
When the throat symptoms occur only on one side, they prefer the left.
They occur: 1. Only when swallowing. 2. When turning the head. 3. On external pressure. 4. When breathing deeply.
They are aggravated by: 1. Touch. 2. Swallowing. Ameliorated by: 1. Sugar. 2. Repose.
TASTE. The sense of taste may remain natural and be diminished in sensibility, as we find to be the case ; or its perceptions may be abnormal; thus there is a flat, a putrid, a nauseous taste in the mouth ; the saliva tastes as if spoiled; there is a foul taste after having eaten, like taste of spoiled meat. A foul taste comes out from the pharynx, as well when eating and drinking, although food and drink have their normal taste ; a moderately sweet taste; a sticky taste; a saltish sour taste. It is to be noted that in part these abnormal phenomena depend upon the inflammation of the pharynx, tonsils and salivary glands, which Belladonna evidently induces, and which alters their several secretions. This alteration is perceptible to the taste, which itself is normal. Again it is noticed that, in the other case of abnormal taste, the tongue remains clean. Evidently, then, the symptoms do not result from indigestion (I.E., the sense of taste, being normal, does not perceive the abnormal taste of secretions modified by indigestion; no doubt the sense of taste as a nervous function is modified, its perceptions distorted.)
TASTE OF FOOD. Food tastes salt; at first it tastes right, then, all at once, it tastes partly salt, partly tasteless and flat, with a feeling in throat as if it did not go down.
TASTE OF BREAD. Smells and tastes sour, very sour; and after eating it, a kind of heart-burn. Taste of coffee repugnant. Camphor nauseates.
APPETITE. Many of the phenomena are rather nervous than due to organic derangement.
1. Especial loss. 2. General loss. 3. General increase. 4. Peculiarities.
Repugnance to milk; it has a nauseous smell and bitter, sour taste ; lost by continued drinking.
Repugnance to food. Total repugnance to all food and drink, with frequent weak pulse. Repugnance to beer.
Repugnance to acids, and especially to meat; loss of appetite, entire and long continued ; everything nauseates, especially after smoking. Loss of appetite, with feeling of emptiness and hunger; if he begins to eat, everything tastes well and he eats as usual. (Again, the loss of appetite is rather a nervous phenomenon.) Appetite only for bread and soup.
Increased appetite (HEILWIRKUNG).
THIRST. Loss of thirst. Entire thirstlessness. Abnormal. Greediness to drink, without appetite to do so ; he brings the vessel to his lips and then sets it down again. Great thirst evening, with watery taste, but all drink nauseates him. Great thirst for cold drinks, while yet there is no heat about the body. Thirst at noon (for several days together).
AFTER EATING. After eating a little, a constricted feeling in the stomach ; cough and great thirst; a kind of drunkenness; pinching below the umbilicus, close under the abdominal walls; bitter eructations.
AFTER DRINKING. After drinking beer, inward heat; after drinking, nausea.
GASTRIC ERUCTATIONS. Frequent eructations, bitter and putrid, after eating; these are often incomplete; a half hiccough, often a mere vain endeavor; succeeded often by the raising of a burning, sour acrid fluid and a kind of straining to vomit, with giddiness. (See 526.) The nausea is felt in the throat and not in stomach. A burning on the upper edge of the larynx, and a biting at the upper pharynx.
NAUSEA. Nausea felt in throat only. Qualmishness after breakfast and on going into open air; nausea in the stomach, with inclination to vomit and great thirst, and with eructations.
VOMITING. As a rule difficult and scanty; rather a great retching, with sweat.
HICCOUGH. A mixture of eructation and hiccough ; hiccough followed by spasm of head and extremities ; alternately of right arm and left leg ; thirst, redness and heat.
EPIGASTRIUM. Painless throbbing; occasional pain, especially a great pressure after eating.
STOMACH. Sensation of pressing is the most constant symptom; violent pressure occurring, for the most part, after eating; or else aggravated by eating. It occurs at times only when walking, and compels one to go slowly. Fullness in pit of stomach and under the short ribs, as if gas were pent up there, relieved by flatulent emissions, which increase the nausea; on stooping the fullness is greater, with blackness before the eyes. Distention, with tensive pain evening in bed. The pains are chiefly cramp-like, during every meal; a pain of contraction after a moderate meal; sticking pains in epigastrium, sometimes so violent as to compel him to bend the body backward and hold his breath ; and burning felt both in epigastrium and abdomen (these symptoms are doubtful).
ABDOMEN. Various pains and sensations in the whole abdomen in general (allopathic records); cutting pain. Tensive, spasmodic pain from thorax down to hypogastrium, not permitting the least motion of the body. Drawing-in pain with pressure, occurring when lying down. Pinching pain, compelling one to sit all crouched up and bent forward, with an unavailing desire for stool and subsequent vomiting; pinching in the intestines ; pinching across the upper abdomen, and down the left side, as if in the colon; pinching, with rumbling.
Pressure like a stone, together with pain in the loins; pressing pain, as from a hard burden, only when walking and standing, always relieved by sitting. Pinching, clawing, grasping, as if seized up with talons, in a spot in the abdomen.
Distention and rumbling. (See Flatus.)
HYPOCHONDRIA. In the hypochondria a pressing outward and pain, whenever pressure is made upon the epigastrium.
DISTENTION. RIGHT. Violent constricting pain in right hypochondrium, with sharp sticking thence through right thorax out to the axilla.
Pinching cutting, so that he cannot rise from his seat. Dull stitches about the last ribs.
LEFT. A pressing cutting, when lying quietly on the left side, morning, in bed, relieved by lying on the other side.
UMBILICAL ZONE. Various sensations and pains, the greater part of which are referred to a region immediately below the umbilicus.
Sensation as if the intestines were pressing outward, mostly when standing.
A pressing sticking pain in the umbilical region.
Constricting pain under the umbilicus, simultaneously with a feeling of distention in the abdomen; the pains come in jerks and double one up. This pain compels to crouch forward. Drawing up in a knot of the abdomen, as if a coil or lump were forming. A most painful grasping together in the umbilical region; it seems to come from the sides and concentrate about the navel.
RIGHT. Violent stickings, as with a dull knife between the right hip and the umbilicus.
Cutting sticking over left hip to loins.
HYPOGASTRIUM. Sensations attributable not only to intestines but also to genito-urinary organs.
Pressing, like a heavy load, very low in hypogastrium.
Violent cutting pain, now here now there; more violent on left side.
Cramp-like, constricting pain in the intestines, lying very deep in hypogastrium, alternating with dull stitches or jerkings toward perinaeum.
Violent tensive, pressing pain in whole hypogastrium, especially in pubic region, as if hypogastrium were spasmodically constricted, sometimes as if it were distended (not really so) ; pains which gradually increase and gradually diminish.
Violent pinching deep in hypogastrium, aggravated by drawing in the hypogastrium and by bending the trunk to the left side.
LOINS. Pain, with pressure, as of a stone in the abdomen.
A sticking cutting goes from the umbilical region, over the left hip around to the lumbar vertebrae, as if in a single stroke, and is more painful in the back.
FLATUS. Distention and rumbling.
External abdomen sensitive. Whole abdomen painful, as if raw and sore.
Heat in abdomen and thorax.
Itching sticking around navel, better by rubbing.
STOOL. Irritation of various intensity, inducing altered secretion and spasmodic action. Sensation in the abdomen as if diarrhoea were about to set in, with heat in the abdomen. The primary effect seems to be the production of a slight diarrhoea; pappy stool mixed with slime; green stools with enuresis and sweat (not inflammatory); several watery stools immediately after a copious sweat. Then the stools become less copious but the irritation is increased. At first soft diarrhoeic stools, then more frequent desire for stool, but very scanty evacuations or none at all. Also, desire for stool becomes very frequent and violent, inducing straining, etc. ; desire for stool, which is thinner but normal in quantity; frequent thin stool with tenesmus ; he must go to stool every quarter of an hour; has to go to stool constantly; as the tenesmus increases the discharge diminishes; tenesmus ; scanty diarrhoeic discharge, followed by increased tenesmus; frequent tenesmus without evacuation; tenesmus without evacuation, followed by vomiting.
Constant tenesmus, a pressing and urging toward anus and genitals, alternating with painful constriction of anus.
During stool, a shudder; a kind of chill.
After stool, increased tenesmus immediately.
CHARACTER OF STOOL. 1. Consistence, pappy, mixed with slime; diarrhoeic, alternating with headache ; or with nausea and pressure in the stomach; granular, yellow and somewhat slimy ; watery, immediately after copious sweat; at first soft and diarrhoeic, then frequent tenesmus but little or no evacuation; sometimes hard. 2. Color: yellow, white, like chalk; green, with enuresis and sweat. 3. Smell, sour.
RECTUM. Pressing toward the anus ; constrictive pain, followed by soreness in the abdomen ; quick, slimy diarrhoea and unavailing tenesmus; single stitches.
Itching, and at the same time constriction sensation ; itching low in rectum; violent painful itching in rectum and anus; pleasant tingling in lower part.
ANUS. Internal itching, violent, sudden and painful.
External itching when walking in open air.
Haemorrhage several days in succession from hemorrhoidal veins.
Sphincter relaxation ; involuntary discharges (last action in complete intoxication); spasmodic contraction. (See under Stool ” constriction and constrictive pains.”)
URINARY ORGANS. 1. Pains and sensations. 2. Function. 3. Excretions.
1. PAINS AND SENSATIONS. Twisting and turning in the bladder, as by a great worm, without a desire to urinate. Dull pressure in region of bladder.
2. FUNCTION. Discharge suppressed; the first effect seems to be a retention.
The evacuation is difficult; occurs only in drops (secondary). This symptom is attributed to allopathic observers. The most striking noted by a prover, and probably the first, is frequent desire, but evacuation of a very small quantity at a time; the character of the urine is normal, hence the effect of the drug has been merely to produce spasm.
Involuntary discharge during sleep and at other times; this symptom is noted by Hahnemann as well as by allopathists; it is spasm, perhaps, of long fibers.
COMPLICATIONS. During urination, drawing in left seminal cord. After urination, biting in edge of prepuce.
3. EXCRETIONS. Urine. Quantity diminished according to Hahnemann.
Increased, according to allopathic authorities. Character. Turbid and yellow; turbid with red sediment. (Hahnemann.)
COLOR. Yellow and clear ; whitish. White with ‘ white sediment, turbid with red sediment (both Hahnemann).
GENITAL ORGANS. 1. Pains and sensations generally. Violent straining and pressing toward genitals as if all would fall out; worse by sitting crooked and walking; better by standing and sitting erect. Violent stitches in pubic region as if in internal genitals.
PREPUCE. Drawn back, with unpleasant sensation in exposed glans.
URETHRA. Stitches, length of it, from bulb to orifice, while walking.
Dull stitches behind the glans, especially during motion.
SEMINAL CORDS. Repeated tearing upward in left cord, evening in bed before sleeping.
Drawing during micturition.
TESTES. They are drawn up, with great sticking pains in them.
SEMEN. 1. Nocturnal discharge, from relaxed penis. 2. Repeated in one night and without lascivious dreams.
SEXUAL INSTINCT. Lost entirely.
MENSES. Before: lassitude, abdominal pain, anorexia. During: sweat on chest, yawning and crawling chills, anxiety about heart, great thirst, cramp-like tearing here and there in back and arms. Too early and too copious.
LEUCORRHOEA. White, after pressing as if all would fall out with distention, and then a drawing together in abdomen, with abdominal pain.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Sneezing. Repeated attacks.
Obstruction of Nose. Nose now obstructed, now discharging water.
Catarrh. With the cough of Belladonna, one-sided catarrh with stinking smell like herring-brine, especially on blowing the nose.
LARYNX and TRACHEA. Hoarseness. Voice rough and hoarse.
Cough. The cough is, for the most part, a dry, hacking cough, violent, in repeated attacks at short intervals; the violence of the mechanical action being apparently out of proportion in its intensity to the gravity of the organic affection. Spasmodic cough, as if something had fallen into the bronchia, or dust had lodged in the larynx. A constant inclination to cough. The cough is often accompanied by feeling of dryness and tightness in the chest and in the upper parts of the air-tubes, and is sometimes induced by these sensations. It occurs (at noon, once) in the morning, both early and after rising; and at evening after retiring ; and on through the night, waking from sleep. It is to be observed that it is the spasmodic cough, violent, which occurs at night, while the morning cough is less violent, and is attended by an expectoration of mucus resembling pus (the accumulation of the night, the affection being in a more advanced stage). The aggravation in the evening, after lying down, is marked.
Expectoration. Tenacious saliva, mucus resembling pus, bloody mucus.
Exciting Causes. The cough is excited by the slightest irritating cause ; even by every inspiration ; by sensation as if he had dust in the throat, or something in the bronchia; by a tickling in the back of the larynx (this cough is a violent, dry, irritating cough) ; by a tightness in the chest; by a feeling as if something lay at the epigastrium.
Complications. During the night-cough he grinds his teeth. Needle-stickings in the left side under the ribs. A violent pressing pain in nape of neck as if it would break in pieces.
RESPIRATION. Difficult and oppressed; the acts of respiration are energetic, small, frequent and anxious; increased difficulty from coffee-drinking; from a pressure in epigastrium.
CHEST. Sensations and pains. Pressing upon chest about region of epigastrium, impeding respiration, whereupon nausea rises up into the throat, with faintness; these alternate.
A cramp-like constriction in epigastric region compelling to breathe deeply, walking. Violent constriction as if the chest would be pressed together from both sides. Violent constriction not relieved by voluntary coughing ; difficult inspiration as if hindered by mucus in bronchi; at same time a burning in chest.
Burning. Heat rises suddenly from abdomen in chest, quickly passing away.
Sticking pains in various parts of the chest, brought on and aggravated by coughing, yawning, and by motion generally, but not affected by respiration. They occur most frequently on the right side, and on that side under the clavicle from before backward, under the right arm (checking respiration). On left side they occur from sternum to axilla. Sticking pains, too, are felt in the external coverings of the thorax. Pressing pains on the cartilages of the left side; worse on respiration. Pressing in the chest and between the scapulae, with dyspnoea, when walking and sitting. Oppression in right chest, causing anxiety.
HEART. Pains and sensations. Throbbing pain and pressing unrest and anxiety. Irregular action. A kind of hiccough of the heart on going upstairs.
EXTERNAL CHEST. Eruptions. Painful vesicles over the sternum. Small dark-red spots on chest and thighs. On left mamma little scattered papules ; itching, relieved by rubbing.
MAMMA. Into the breasts of a woman not ENCEINTE, milk enters; it runs out; on left mamma little scattered papules, relieved by rubbing.
PELVIC REGION GENERALLY. A dull sensitive drawing in the whole circumference of pelvis; it goes alternately from sacrum to pubes.
The ischia are painful; feel as if without flesh ; still they feel better when prover sits hard than when softly (characteristic).
In the crest of ilium over the hips a pain as of a sharp body cutting out, when he rises from seat.
SACRUM AND COCCYX. In sacrum and coccyx an extremely painful cramp-pain; he can sit only a short time; becomes by sitting quite stiff, and can then not rise again on account of pain ; cannot even lie well, and has to turn to the other side amid great pain; cannot at all lie on his back; most relieved by standing and slowly walking about, but quick walking is impossible.
LOINS. Spasmodic sensation in left lumbar region.
BACK GENERALLY. Vertebral column: Pains and sensations. Pressing pain on the left side under the false ribs. Sticking and gnawing pain in vertebral column generally; gnawing pain, with cough. Cramp-like, pressing sensation in middle of column, which becomes tense on becoming erect.
Vertebral column and back: Right side, pain as if dislocated or sprained.
VERTEBRA. Sticking from without inward, as if with a knife.
SCAPULAE. Left: Pressing pain under it, rather toward outside. Right: Fine stitches. Between: Pain as if from a sprain. Repeated stitches, as if electric, from the left to the right scapula. Violent drawing between scapulae, down the back. Between right and vertebral column, drawing pain ; cramp-pain, almost a pinching.
EXTERNAL BACK. Back, and especially the scapulae, covered with large red papules; whole skin looks red and feels sore to touch, but in the points of the papules are fine sticking pains. Itching eruption on right scapula, tickling on left.
NAPE. Painful stiffness between scapulae and in nape, on turning throat and head either way. Pressing pain externally in neck and throat on bending head backward and on touch.
EXTERNALLY. Swelling of the glands in the nape, with confusion of the head. Papules on nape and arm; fill with pus and form a crust.
UPPER EXTREMITIES. AXILLA. Left: Painful swelling of the glands.
ARM GENERALLY. Motion: Stretching, twisting and turning of upper extremities. Motion convulsive. Spasm of right arm, with gnashing of teeth. Jerking in right arm. Drawing down in muscles of right arm, and when down a jerking upward toward shoulder. Convulsive shuddering. Tonic spasm (allopathic observations).
SENSATION. Lassitude, especially in hands, which he leaves hanging down. Heaviness and paralysis, especially of left arm. Paralytic pressure and paralytic sensation and weakness in left arm.
PAINS. Tearing pain, as if too short; stiffness; tearing pains; drawing pains ; pains as if beaten.
EXTERNALLY. Sensation: Crawling, as of a fly, not relieved by rubbing.
ERUPTION. Papule under each elbow, dull red, no sensation nor suppuration.
ELBOW. Rumbling (KOLLERN) as of water or blood running through the veins. Pains. Cutting pains inwardly, when walking. Sharp stitches externally. Paralytic drawing pains in elbow and in fingers of left hand.
FOREARM. Fine stitches in left forearm. Dull sticking in middle of inner forearm, becoming gradually worse and at last very violent. Cutting, tearing pain.
CARPUS. Paralytic tearing in the carpal bones.
METACARPUS. Sticking tearing in the bone of left metacarpus.
HANDS GENERALLY. Copious cold sweat; swelling ; painless stiffness, hindering flexion as if joints were dry.
FINGERS. Painful drawing in periosteum. Tearing cutting.
EXTERNALLY. Little red spots on dorsa, vanishing quickly. Finger, vesicle with painful inflammation. Pustule close to nail.
LOWER EXTREMITIES GENERALLY. Motion : Stretching, he is obliged to extend the limb. Paralysis with nausea, trembling anxiety (from allopathic authorities).
SENSATIONS. Soreness on inside of limb ; sensation as if beaten or rotten in whole limb, with sticking and gnawing in the bones, with great tearing in the joints; this gradually rises from the feet to the hip, relieved by motion and walking; weariness and heaviness of the limbs a marked symptom, with drawing pain, a paralytic sensation.
ILIAC REGION AND JOINT. Cramp pain with tension in the glutaei when stooping. In the hip-joint (right) a cold feeling; transient, sticking pain both during rest and motion; paralytic tension when walking, as if luxated. Left: Pain with limping (allopathic), also nervous. Right: Pain when lying on it, relieved by turning to lie on left hip.
THIGH. Excessive heaviness and stiffness when walking; heaviness when sitting; sticking pain, as from a knife in middle of thigh, rather behind (after dinner); sticking cutting in exterior muscles of right thigh, just above the knee, only when sitting; cutting, jerking tearing in posterior muscles of left thigh when sitting; drawing pain outward toward skin at a small spot inside left thigh; throbbing spot inside of left thigh.
KNEE. Violent pains; unpleasant sensations, especially in knee and in other joints of lower extremities, as if they would “click” when walking and descending.
ABOVE. Tingling, quivering sensation when sitting.
PATELLA. Right: Cramp pain near patella, from within outward; sitting, pressing sticking while sitting. Left: Needle stickings under patella, sitting.
HOLLOW. Motion: Stiffness on motion, as if external (and sometimes the internal) hamstrings were too short; in thigh muscles, jerking upward and pains. Right: Squeezing and pressing pains. Left: Dull sticking.
LEG GENERALLY. Motion: Has to stretch out the foot from horrid pain in leg.
SENSATIONS. Paralytic lassitude in both legs, and especially in calves on going upstairs; trembling heaviness of right leg when it is crossed over the left; a drawing-up sensation, which is externally a mere crawling, but internally is innumerable stitches.
LEGS. Pains: Stitches, painful from foot to knee (when stepping with left foot) ; cutting drawing, first in a little spot on the feet, then through the leg and thigh to the loins and shoulder; compressed and dull tearing, especially at night, relieved by hanging the leg out of bed; a dull burning tearing up the leg through the inner hamstring.
SHIN. Tearing in shin-bone; in right shin-bone, with pressing asunder sensation. Left: Pressing when standing.
CALF. Left: Sharp sticking from below upward; cramp on bending the leg, evening in bed, relieved by stretching out the thigh; tearing pain inside, not affected by motion or touch.
FEET. EXTERNALLY. Sweat without warmth; excoriating itching, soles and dorsa; itching, swelling of the feet.
SENSATIONS. JOINTS. Right: Tension on walking ; pain in metatarsus, as if luxated on walking and bending inward the sole; tearing in the great toe joint.
SOLE. Cramp, evening in bed on bending up the knee; burning and digging.
PAINS. DORSA. Dull stickings when sitting, not affected by external pressure.
SOLES. Heat; boring digging pains.
HEEL. Tension in right sole in the region of the heel, becoming a tensive pressure, relieved for a while by pressure.
TENDO ACHILLIS. Boring or tearing sticking.
GENERALITIES. Motion: Constant disposition to stretch, evening; pain prevents it.
Pain advances gradually to a very high pitch; then suddenly vanishes and re-appears in another spot; sudden horrid pain in one side of chest, abdomen, loins or in one elbow, especially during sleep, compelling to crook the part.
AGGRAVATIONS. All symptoms aggravated after-noon (three and four p. M.) ; more tolerable forenoon; gnawing pain in affected parts.
Sensitive to touch; parts where sticking pains have been are very sore; crawling, tearing, sticking, itching, here and there, in evening in bed; after rubbing a tearing pain remains.
GLANDS. Boring pain in the affected glands.
SKIN. ULCERS. Burning pain, almost only at night (six P. M. to six A. M.), as if something would be pressed out; the parts as if lame and stiff; violent itching; cutting pain during rest, tearing during motion of the part; soreness around ulcer.
Discharge almost nothing but bloody serum.
SPASM. Spasmodic laughter; convulsive movements of the extremities, SUBSULTUS TENDINUM, etc., are attributed to Belladonna by allopathic authorities. Slight vexation induces convulsive paroxysms; he inclines to run up the walls; convulsive movements on waking.
Under title Sleep, frequent mention will be made of convulsive motion on waking and during sleep.
RESTLESSNESS. He has constantly to change the position of limbs and body, especially hands and feet; trembling in all his limbs.
LASSITUDE. Disinclination to work; lassitude generally, and in morning after a sleep, whether long and heavy or interrupted by dreams, forgotten or not; feebleness of hands and feet; uncertain step, the knees give way.
PARALYSIS. Paralytic weakness of all limbs, especially of the feet. Allopathic authors quote complete paralysis of left side, arm and thigh; stiffness and paralysis of the extremities and whole body.
SYNCOPE. COMPLETE. Allopaths quote an entire apoplectic condition.
SLEEP. Sleepiness; stupidity compelling sleep, which lasts about ninety minutes; after it great hunger, with great burning heat in mouth; no thirst; foul breath on coughing; great sleepiness with yawning; afternoon, sleepiness with yawning and stretching, and eyes filled with water; sleepiness at night, with inability to sleep, or starting up in a fright at the moment of falling asleep.
GOING TO SLEEP. Starting up in a fright, the feet jerking upward and the head forward; always, on going to sleep, waking and starting with fright. Just at time when he usually goes to sleep he lies long without knowing whether he is awake or is dreaming; in evening it seems as if the bed swims.
TIME. Generally late; sometimes early, and, waking early, refreshed for time only.
SLEEP. Restless sleep before midnight, tossing and talking in the sleep; restless, being full of dreams about men or about business; restless, the pains become unendurable, with frightful dreams; restless, he wakes frequently, tossing and cannot sleep again; heavy, with anxious dreams which he cannot recall; he even hears himself cry out from fright and yet does not awake; when waked by coughing, he goes to sleep again immediately, yet in the morning is unrefreshed, with lassitude. During sleep, starting continually; singing and loud speaking.
COMPLICATION. Whether asleep or awake, interruption of the respiration; the respiratory act lasts only half as long as the pause; expiration follows suddenly and convulsively, and is louder than inspiration; inspiration only a little longer than expiration.
DREAMS. Many dreams about men and business; many which are not remembered, they take the refreshment from sleep; not many until toward morning. Character: Lively dreams; fearful, waking him with starting and a cry of murder and robbers; dreams with aggravation of the pains.
Waking during sleep; he awakes full of alarm and fear, as if something under the bed had cried out, with dry heat; waking, with fearful dreams, with sweat on forehead and praecordia.
Waking morning; bad humor, headache and lassitude ; headache over the eyes, like a weight in the head, and pain in the eyes when touched; sleepiness.
SLEEPLESSNESS. Great sleeplessness for several nights in succession, from anxiety, with drawing pains in the limbs; sleeplessness from phantasies which hold her attention.
FEVER. Allopathic authorities mention paroxysms of fever, commencing generally in the night after midnight or in the morning, accompanied by very great thirst, which is greatest after the sweat. The sweat is copious.
(1178-1194.) Hahnemann also describes paroxysms: These occur in the afternoon or evening; very severe chill; two hours after, heat and general sweat, without thirst during either chill or heat; the heat is especially great about the head and in the face, and is often attended by dizziness; frequent attacks of fever during the day; chill, followed by general heat and sweat, without thirst during either stage.
CHILL. Paleness and coldness; ice-cold hands, dull headache and depression; coldness of the whole body, especially of the feet (with headache, CONGESTIO AD CAPUT), with swollen, red face and hot head, pain in ears, etc.; cold, beginning in the back and epigastrium or in both arms, and going over the whole body.
Shudder in various parts, with heat in others; with heat in ears and head and face and nose; swollen face.
Sweat of feet.
Chill excited by every breath of air, yet air, in other respects, is agreeable.
HEAT. Allopathic authors mention violent burning heat, both internal and external; red face; general dry heat of feet and hands, without thirst; pale face.
INTERNAL HEAT. Everything taken is too cold.
Internal heat with swollen veins, and especially pulsation of the carotids so great as to make the teeth chatter; heat in head.
Internal heat morning in bed, yet he does not uncover; pain in the parts which he does uncover, as if from cold.
Internal heat and external over whole body, especially the head; pulsation in the temporal arteries, with confusion in the head and subsequent sweat.
Internal heat both sensible and actual, especially in red, sweaty face, with headache and thirst.
HEAT. Excited by slight motion.
IN RELATION TO EXTERNAL SURFACE. Allopathic authors quote: Inflammation of whole body, with quick pulse ; heat of the whole body, with violent redness; redness and swelling of whole body; burning hot and red, with pricking, biting sensation ; itching of the whole body, with eruption of red petecchiae.
ERUPTIVE FEVERS. Thorax and abdomen covered with little red, elevated, painless spots, which often vanish and suddenly re-appear, with general redness of the skin. Inflamed red spots and spots like scarlatina, of various forms, over the body. Hot erysipelatoid fever, accompanied by swellings inflamed and even gangrenous.
Allopathic authors in addition give: Blood-red spots on the whole body, especially in the face and chest. Measles-like eruption. Dull, red, scarlet-fever-like spots over the whole body, with small, quick pulse, dyspnoea, violent cough, delirium, increased memory and dilated pupils.
SWEAT. Sweat more or less copious after the heat. Fugitive sweats, alternating with coolness; sometimes occurring with heat. The sweat is most apt to occur, or is most copious, on face and forehead, and is often unaccompanied by thirst.
EXCITED BY: Slight motion during sleep ; many symptoms refer to night-sweats, very copious; covering one’s self in bed, only the parts covered sweat; covering the hands in bed, inducing a general sweat; on uncovering them, a general chill.
TIME. Night frequently mentioned. The night-sweat does not debilitate. Immediately after midnight. During sleep. Morning. SMELL. The night-sweat putrid. PULSE. Strong and frequent, large, full and slow. Small and frequent. Large, 85.
ANXIETY. Crying out on the slightest provocation, on approach of anybody. During the day, no rest in any place. Great affright. Anxiety in the praecordial region.
GROANING. Frequent, especially in morning, without knowing why. At every expiration, and during sleep.
Allopathic authors give: Trembling in hands and feet, with sudden cry. Anxiety, followed by sweat, about things formerly hoped for. Anxiety and unrest in prsecordia, with headache, red face and bitter taste.
RESTLESSNESS. Cannot sit long in one spot, goes about everywhere. Ceaseless motion of the body, especially the arms; pulse not being altered. Constant tossing in bed.
DELIRIUM. Allopathic authors give: Speech without connection. Constant delirium, waking and in dreams. It comes on after eating. Dreams of conflagration at home, of wolves and dogs around him.
Night—delirium, with consciousness during the day. Paroxysms of delirium.
(F. Hahnemann.) She sits idle behind the stove; makes songs and sings them, senseless and incoherent; also she whistles by times; eats and drinks nothing; pale face and sweat on the forehead.
DISPOSITION. ELEVATED. Shown by disposition to sing and whistle; laughing at she knows not what; frequent laughing and singing, loud and long ; laughable gestures, now sitting, now motioning as if washing, counting money, drinking.
Allopathic authors give: Great insane excitement ; running half-clad, with wonderful gestures; laughing, singing, dancing, etc. ; violent shaking of the head, foaming at the mouth; clapping the hands over the head, saliva running out of the mouth; she distorts her face; her tongue hangs out of her mouth.
DEPRESSED. Anxiety with weeping; she is tired of life. Fearfulness, with disposition to weep. Whining, sniffling and howling without cause, with fearfulness especially on waking. Indifference. Inactivity of mind and body.
Indifferent to everything; careless of life. Apathetic, unimpressible. Then, after a few days, she is very sensitive and impressible.
IRRITABLE. Irritability about trifles, with pressing headache as from a stone, caused by every noise or visit. She wishes solitude and repose. Quiet irritability, alternating with the natural disposition, with great dryness in the mouth.
ANGER. If all be not right, even anger at himself about very trifles.
Irritability and over-sensibility; all the senses are too highly strung.
RAGE. Either paroxysmal or constant delirium; first jolly, then raging; howling and crying about trifles, aggravated by kind speeches; with very mobile pupils; violent rage, not to be soothed.
Allopathic authors give: Rage, tossing about in bed, tearing clothes, striking himself in the face with his fist, gnashing of the teeth and convulsions; biting the spoon, barking and howling; great desire to bite the by-standers. This rage is attended by burning heat of the body, open, staring eyes, and spitting at the by-standers.
Mistrust and desire to flee; fear of an imaginary black dog. This is in general a primary and early effect of Belladonna. She seeks to flee; asks her friends to kill her; throws herself into the water.
The practical scope of Belladonna in therapeutics may be inferred from a RESUME of its physiological action.
We have seen that it acts upon every part of the nervous system; upon the sensorium, producing confusion, delirium, mania, stupor; that simultaneously it produces heat of the head, redness of the face and eyes, throbbing of the carotids, a full, hard and tolerably frequent pulse, together with perversions of the special senses and spasmodic action of the voluntary muscles.
Now, these symptoms point to the use of Belladonna in diseases which involve not merely the function, but also the tissues, of the nervous center of the cerebro-spinal nervous system. Accordingly, in mania we find Belladonna a prominent remedy, as likewise in inflammation of the brain and its meninges. In these affections, besides the perversion of the sensorial functions and the direct symptoms of cerebritis or meningitis respectively, there will always be present, if Belladonna be indicated, the red face, shining eyes and full, hard pulse, already described. These may not be present along with mania. The face may be of a natural hue or pale; the pulse not fuller, even smaller, than is customary; the expression, far from being anxious, turgid, inflammatory, may be mild or pinched, or again, stupid. In such cases, the true remedy may be Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, Veratrum, Platina or Natrum muriaticum or some other drug; it cannot be Belladonna.
So of the encephalitis, the face may be pale, the eyes dull or distorted, the patient stupid or nearly so, the pulse slow and soft. The brain or its membranes, or both, may indeed be the seat of inflammation, but Belladonna cannot be the remedy. This may be Helleborus niger or Sulphur or Bryonia or Zincum.
As a generalization, it may be stated that Belladonna seems to be required in cases in which the arterial storm which would have indicated Aconite, having actually burst upon the patient and localized its action in the encephalon, this localization is still in the first stage of engorgement and plastic deposit. When the period of serous effusion arrives, or when the deposit is complete, the case has already passed beyond the province of Belladonna ; and now Hellebore, Sulphur and Zinc come into the field.
In affections of the eye, both functional and organic, Belladonna is indicated by the symptoms, and has approved itself in practice. As regards functional disease, cases are numerous in which partial or total blindness has ensued from poisoning with Belladonna. On the other hand, Belladonna has approved itself a frequently indicated and very serviceable remedy in amaurosis, partial or complete.
As to organic affections, while the conjunctiva and the secretions are but moderately affected, the deeper tissues of the eyes seem to be gravely attacked, as is shown by the deep pains in the orbits, the fullness and distention of the eye as though it would burst, the supra-orbital and post-orbital pains and the illusions of vision. It is rarely that Belladonna is indicated, unless the general symptoms characteristic of its action are present, viz., the full, hard pulse, the red and hot face, the frontal weight and heat and the peculiar crescendo character of the pain.
The facial neuralgia produced by Belladonna has been fully described. Many cases of cure are recorded. The pain has the peculiarities already described, and is most likely to be aggravated in the evening. It occurs generally on the right side, and is thus distinguished from the neuralgia for which Spigelia is indicated. From the neuralgia which requires Stannum, and which may also be on the right side, it is distinguished by the fact that the pain which Stannum produces and relieves comes on gently, increases gradually and then as gradually diminishes in severity; while that of Belladonna, after gradually rising to an intolerable acuteness, ceases on a sudden.
Inflammatory affections of the throat can hardly be mentioned in any connection without calling to mind Belladonna as a remedy, so universal is its use and so efficacious. In simple tonsillitis, when the tonsils are swollen and present a bright red appearance with painful and difficult deglutition, at first dryness of the fauces, and then moderate secretion of ropy mucus or saliva, with the characteristic pulse and expression of face, Belladonna suffices to effect a cure in a few hours. It is useful not merely in tonsillitis, but equally so in pharyngitis, in inflammation of the soft palate and uvula, and of the larynx when the mucous membrane and the sub-mucous cellular tissue are both involved. The redness is vivid; the pain is acute, tense and often throbbing; the arterial action very decided. The secretion of the mucous membrane in a typical Belladonna case, though it may be diminished causing dryness, or thickened causing a ropy discharge, is not altered in such wise as to simulate a plastic or a diphtheritic deposit. In such cases the remedy is more likely to be found among Mercury, Bromine, Cantharis, Muriatic acid and Lachesis.
If, again, the affection of the sub-mucous cellular tissue be such as to cause a dropsical effusion into this tissue, so that the soft curtain of the palate, the uvula and the walls of the pharynx become like swollen, translucent water-bags, Belladonna is not indicated. The remedy is Rhus or possibly Phosphorus.
Finally, the tonsils may be chronically enlarged. The fissures may be very prominent. In these fissures little white granules are observed, which are very fetid and are oily in their composition.
The swelling of the tonsil is very evident externally, and is painful on external pressure.
Pathologists are not agreed as to the nature and origin of these white granules. I believe them to be the altered secretion of the tonsil. Such a state of things is generally attended by follicular pharyngitis and by cough, loss of voice and accumulations of mucus in the larynx and trachea. In such cases Lachesis is almost always indicated. None of these are Belladonna cases, and the sooner their nature is discovered and the true remedy given in place of Belladonna, which may have been at first selected, the better for the patient.
Finally, in a case which was, or seemed to be, a Belladonna case, the swelling increases, the difficulty in swallowing becomes very great, the mucous membrane of the fauces grows livid, a sharp sticking pain as from a splinter is felt in the side of the fauces, the external swelling is great and tender the secretion becomes offensive and yellowish, the pulse becomes frequent, but softer and smaller; in fact, it is evident that an abscess is forming in the substance of the tonsil. In such a case Belladonna will do no good. Hepar sulphuris will be more likely to arrest suppuration if that be possible, or else to circumscribe and hasten it, if the case have already gone so far that resolution is impossible.
Of the peculiar throat affection of scarlatina more will be said when we come to speak of that disease.
On the digestive apparatus, on the function of nutrition, as already stated, Belladonna exerts but little action. It is rarely indicated in diseases of this apparatus. Nevertheless the general symptoms characteristic of Belladonna may be present in so marked a degree in some disease of these organs as to call for Belladonna. Thus, in acute hepatitis it may possibly be sometimes called for, not so much by the liver symptoms as by the general subjective or objective sympathetic symptoms affecting other organs or systems.
Belladonna may perhaps be indicated in some forms of dysentery, or of inflammation of the rectum, as the symptoms of ” constant tenesmus and pressing downward upon both bladder and rectum, with scanty stool and increased tenesmus following the stool,” show. Yet the drug does not correspond to the general character of these diseases, and if indicated it will be so rather by virtue of its general characteristics; and although it may be an indispensable remedy at some other stage of a difficult case, it will rarely prove the sole and all-sufficient cure for any case of dysentery.
The urine, as we have seen, is scanty, with frequent tenesmus of the bladder and slight strangury. The urine itself is dark and turbid, and sometimes fiery red.
Belladonna has been frequently used in inflammatory affections of the bladder, attended by the above symptoms and by the general characteristics of Belladonna. Likewise, in the first stage of desquamative nephritis.
Its appropriateness to this frequent feature of scarlatina is an additional item in the indication of Belladonna for that disease.
In its applicability to these affections, Belladonna is associated with Cantharides, Apis, Terebinth, Arsenicum and Mercury.
If we are at all in a position to draw distinctions between the members of this group, I should say that Cantharides corresponds more particularly to affections of the bladder and urethra, and not of the kidney; Belladonna to those of the bladder, especially its neck, and to the first stage of kidney affection, congestion; Terebinth to the kidney and not to the bladder, and to the first stage of the kidney affection, that of congestion and hematuria before albumen is effused; Mercury to the kidney when albumen is being effused, but before dropsy occurs; Apis and Arsenicum to the kidney and to the second stage when albumen in abundance is effused, and when, in addition, the disease has endured so long that dropsical effusions have occurred in the cellular tissue. I cannot give these distinctions authoritatively. They should not influence your prescriptions, unless the other and general symptoms of each case correspond to those of the drug; I believe in most cases they will be found to correspond.
The symptoms of Belladonna which relate to the pelvic organs, and in particular to the uterus, are very graphic. No remedy is more frequently and successfully employed for affections of the genital organs of women.
On the provers, Belladonna produced the symptom: ” Constant and violent pressure downward toward the genital organs, as if everything would fall out.”
This symptom would suggest the use of Belladonna in cases of prolapsus uteri, whether chronic and constant, or occurring at intervals, or at the menstrual period in case of dysmenorrhoea.
In all of these cases, Belladonna is one of our most valuable remedies. But four other drugs of the ” Materia Medica Pura” have the very same symptom, viz.: Sepia, Nux vomica, Podophyllum and Pulsatilla.
How shall we distinguish the case appropriate for each remedy? Why, by the conditions and the concomitant symptoms.
The above symptom of Belladonna is worse when the patient sits bent over and when she walks, but is better when she sits erect or when she stands. Now, under Sepia, the conditions are just the reverse; the symptom is aggravated by sitting up, still more by standing, and most of all by walking; while it is relieved by lying down; just what you would expect in a case of atonic relaxation of the ligamentous and vaginal supports of the uterus; while the apparent incongruities of the Belladonna conditions accord well with the conditions of an irritable or inflammatory state of the organ.
Nux vomica, again, has the pressing down more in the back, with irritable rectum, frequent ineffectual desire for stool, with scanty evacuations. There is but little leucorrhoea. Pulsatilla, on the other hand, has the same symptom as Belladonna, with aggravation on lying down, but it has also aggravation from heat, and amelioration in the open air, with pressure on the bladder and frequent micturition; but this is copious and not attended by strangury.
Moreover, there is a copious thick leucorrhoea. The general symptoms show a disposition to a hydraemic condition, instead of the hyperaemia or hyperrhinosis of Belladonna.
Podophyllum has not been so carefully proved as to furnish a good idea of its characteristics. But I believe that it is rarely useful in prolapsus, unless there be also prolapsus of the vagina and rectum, or a tendency thereto, and pain in the region of the ovaries.
There is a form of dysmenorrhoea in which Belladonna is capable of effecting a radical cure, even in cases of many years’ standing. The pain is often exceedingly severe, driving the patient to the use of anodynes. It is a dragging and pressing downward. There are also cutting pains from behind forward, or VICE VERSA, and passing through a horizontal diameter of the pelvis, and not around its circumference (as the pains of Sepia and Platina do). These pains precede the appearance of the menses from six to twenty hours. They are paroxysmal and intolerable. The patient notices that an evacuation of the bowels at this time is painful.
It seems as though the faeces, particularly if the mass be large and tolerably solid, in passing along the rectum, pressed anteriorly upon a sore surface. If the index finger be passed into the rectum, a hot rounded tumor may be perceived about two and one-half inches above the orifice of the rectum. It is extremely painful when gently pressed. A vaginal examination brings the finger in contact with this same body in the posterior cul DE SAC of the vagina. It is the congested or inflamed ovary. In very severe cases of this kind, I have found that Belladonna, persisted in for many consecutive months, given just before each menstrual epoch, would suffice to overcome at least all tendency to a recurrence of these attacks, and would render menstruation normal.
Belladonna has been successfully used in certain cases of uterine haemorrhage.
While on this subject I may call your attention to a singular affection, the pathology of which I do not understand.
In women apparently healthy, in whom the function of menstruation is in every other respect normal, the flow is sometimes extremely offensive. It has been described to me by the patients and their friends as peculiarly and distressingly offensive. The peculiar character of this odor I could never get intelligibly described. The cases that have come under my observation have been unmarried young women, in good circumstances and of most exemplary habits in every way. I was led to give Belladonna from the symptom (quoted by Hahnemann from Evers’ “Berliner Sammlungen,” iv.) “offensive metrorrhagia.” The odor ceased to be perceived. No other remedy or treatment had any effect. A similar odor has been observed in the lochial discharge on the fourth or fifth day, and has likewise been removed by Belladonna.
Belladonna has been recommended by allopathic physicians during labor, as a local remedy for rigidity of the os uteri. Cases not infrequently occur during labor, or during the puerperal period, in which the general symptoms characteristic of Belladonna are present, and indicate that remedy.
In affections of the respiratory organs Belladonna is a most important remedy; but especially in irritable and inflammatory conditions of the larynx and trachea, whether isolated or conjoined with the affections of the fauces and the pharynx already described.
The cough is dry, or, if there be any sputa, it is only after long coughing, and they consist often of mucus tinged with blood. It occurs, or is much aggravated, in the evening and early night—more particularly just after lying down.
It comes in paroxysms.
It is accompanied by heat and great redness of the face, sparkling eyes and full, hard pulse. It is provoked by a tickling in the larynx, as if dust were there, in the back part of the larynx, which compels a hard, dry cough.
It is induced by exertion, by lying down and by very deep inspiration.
It is accompanied by a feeling of soreness in the larynx, as if internally hot and sore; this soreness is felt when pressing the larynx externally. It is also accompanied by oppression of the chest, heat in the chest, dyspnoea, etc.
These symptoms have led to the use of Belladonna in laryngitis of adults, and in the first stages of croup ; in certain epidemics, in trachitis, and in pneumonia. The general symptoms must correspond, as always.
It is of the greatest importance to distinguish the cough of Belladonna from those of its cognates, viz., Lachesis, Phosphorus, Causticum, Rumex crispus and Cepa. I will sketch their characteristics now, and repeat them as we take up each remedy,, hoping by reiteration to fix them in your minds.
The cough of Lachesis is dry, like that of Belladonna ; but there is a sensation as if something were in the trachea which might be raised, and indeed comes partly up, but then goes back again.
It is provoked by tickling in the trachea (below that of Belladonna) induced by touching the trachea or pressing on it, or by pressure of the clothing of the patient, and which he therefore loosens, or by throwing the head back, and also by eating.
It occurs always on awaking from sleep.
It is accompanied by some hoarseness and sore throat, which shoots up into the ear, and by chronic tonsillitis, with oily white granules.
The cough of Phosphorus is dry, or has a scanty, rusty sputum. It occurs night or day. It is provoked by a tickling in the trachea pretty low down, and by a feeling of rawness and soreness in the trachea and bronchi. It is induced by a very deep inspiration. It is accompanied and characterized by a hoarse, barking sound, by rawness of trachea and whole chest, and by a peculiar and distressing weight across the chest. Hoarseness.
The cough of Causticum is dry. It occurs in the evening. It is provoked by a tickling high in the trachea. It is in long paroxysms. The voice is almost gone. The trachea is sore and raw, but not the chest.
The cough of Rumex crispus is dry and short and paroxysmal, or is a constant hack. It occurs evening and night on going to bed. It is provoked by tickling in the supra-sternal fossa; is induced by pressure in that region; is induced by inhaling a breath of cool air; by a deep inhalation; by any variation of breathing. It is accompanied by great fatigue from coughing, and by stitches through the left lung.
The cough of Cepa is dry, though there are acrid coryza and lachrymation. The cough is induced by tickling in the larynx, and each cough feels as though it would split the larynx in two. The patient cringes under the pain.
I have traveled out of my record to give these characteristics of the cough of each member of this group and to compare them, because this sharp discrimination it is the business of the practitioner to make whenever he is called upon to prescribe for a patient; and my chief business is to show you what is to be done and how to do it, so that the great object may be best attained, viz., the selection of the right remedy and the cure of the patient.
Passing now from the application of Belladonna to diseases of special organs or apparatus, we come to its use in general diseases of the entire system; and first, in
FEVERS. In intermittent fever we should not be likely to select Belladonna. Its proving shows hardly a trace of periodicity, neither is the febrile paroxysm distinctly divided into stages. For this very reason, however, it may be required in some malarious diseases, commonly classed among intermittents, and in which the heat begins early and is nearly continuous, and the head shows signs from the first of being involved; great cerebral congestion or positive inflammation taking place in the encephalon. In such cases, Belladonna may be indicated. The characteristic general symptom will be present. The fever of the Roman Campagna is of this kind.
In typhoid or typhus fever, we should not expect to employ Belladonna save as an intercurrent remedy. Its symptoms give us no picture of blood decomposition. The nervous system, instead of being depressed, unstrung or suspended from its office, is stimulated, aroused; and if perverted in its action, perverted through the morbid intensity and energy of that action.
All this is very unlike the effect of the typhus miasm on the nervous system.
Nor, again, does Belladonna present us the muscular torpor and paralysis peculiar to typhus, and which Rhus toxicodendron and Arsenicum present so clearly.
Belladonna, then, is not suited to a typical case of typhus or typhoid.
Nevertheless, cases may occur that will call for it. Mania, PER SE, or encephalitis, may occur in the course of the disease, and, presenting the characteristic symptoms of Belladonna, may require its use as an intercurrent, but as an intercurrent only.
And let me warn you to beware of intercurrent remedies. Let your aim be to select each drug as a remedy corresponding not merely to the present symptoms, but also to that general character and fabric of the disease which determine its symptoms and their successive productions, course and relations.
ERUPTIVE FEVERS. While Belladonna may be indicated by the totality of the symptoms at some period during the course of any one of the eruptive fevers, it is particularly to scarlatina that it seems closely to correspond, and in the treatment as well as in the prevention of which it has become a famous remedy.
PROPHYLAXIS. Hahnemann’s attention was called to the subject of scarlatina by the prevalence of a severe epidemic of it in Saxony; and which invaded his own family soon after he had begun his investigations of the law of cure and his provings of drugs upon the healthy subject. Having become satisfied of the close resemblance existing between the character of the prevailing epidemic and the effects of Belladonna, he went further, and conjectured that Belladonna might prove a prophylactic against the disease. The story of this discovery may best be told in his own words:
The mother of a large family, at the commencement of July, 1799, when the scarlet fever was most prevalent and fatal, had got a new counterpane made up by a sempstress, who (without the knowledge of the former) had in her small chamber a boy just recovering from scarlet fever. The first-mentioned woman, on receiving it, examined and smelt it, but as she could detect no smell, she placed it beside her on a sofa on which, some hours later, she lay down to sleep. In this way alone she imbibed the miasm. A week subsequently she was suddenly attacked with quinsy and its characteristic shooting pains in the throat, which were subdued in four days. Several days afterward, her daughter, ten years of age, was attacked in the evening by severe pressive pains in the abdomen, itching of the head and body, rigor over the head and arms and paralytic stiffness of the joints. Her sleep was restless during the night, with frightful dreams and general perspiration, excepting the head.
I found her in the morning with pressive headache, dimness of vision, slimy tongue, some ptyalism, the sub-maxillary glands hard, swollen and painful to the touch, and shooting pains in the throat when attempting to swallow. She was free from thirst; pulse quick and small; breathing hurried and anxious; very pale though feeling hot; horripilation; leaning forward to lessen the pain; she complained of stiffness with an air of much dejection, and shunned conversation, feeling that she could only speak in a whisper. Her look was dull, yet staring; her eyelids widely stretched, face pale and features sunk.
Knowing too well the ineffectual nature of the ordinary favorite remedies, I resolved, in this case of incipient scarlet fever, not to act with reference to individual symptoms, but (agreeably to my new synthetical principle) to obtain, if possible, a remedy calculated to produce in a healthy person most of the morbid symptoms I now observed; and my memory and written remarks suggested no remedy so appropriate as Belladonna, which I had observed to produce precisely the above-mentioned symptoms.
I therefore gave the girl, who was already affected by the first indications of scarlet fever, a dose of Belladonna (432,000 of a grain of the extract, which, according to my subsequent experience, is too large a dose). She remained quietly seated all day, without lying down; the heat of her body diminished, she drank but little; none of her symptoms increased, and no new ones appeared. She slept quietly, and the following morning, twenty hours after taking the medicine, most of the symptoms had disappeared without any crisis; the sore throat only continued, but in a less degree, till the evening, when it went off. The following day she was lively, and ate and played as usual.
I gave her a second dose, and she remained perfectly well, while two other children of the family fell ill of the scarlet fever without my knowledge, whom I could only treat according to my general plan detailed above. I gave my convalescent a smaller dose of Belladonna every three or four days, and she continued in perfect health.
I now earnestly desired to preserve the other five children from infection; their removal being impossible, and I thus reasoned: a remedy capable of quickly checking a disease in its first onset must be its best preventive, and the following occurrence strengthened my opinion: Some weeks previously three children of another family were ill of severe scarlet fever. The eldest daughter alone, who had been taking Belladonna internally for an external affection of the joints of her fingers, to my great astonishment escaped the infection, although in other cases of epidemics she had readily taken them.
This decided me to administer to the other five children very small doses of this excellent remedy as a preservative, and as its action lasts only three days, I repeated the dose every seventy-two hours, and they all remained in perfect health, though surrounded with infection.
In the meantime, I was called to attend another family where the eldest son was ill of scarlet fever. I found him in the height of the fever, with the eruption on the chest and arms. He was seriously ill, and it was too late to give the specific prophylactic remedy. But, wishing to preserve the other children of four and two years old and nine months, I directed the parents to give the requisite dose of Belladonna every three days, and had the happiness of seeing them escape the disease in spite of constant intercourse with their sick brother.
By this narrative Hahnemann introduced to the medical world what he thought a discovery of great value. Scarlatina prevailed extensively in Europe at that time and during the first quarter of the present century. Belladonna as a prophylactic was tried in thousands of cases and by hundreds of physicians. The testimony in its favor was not unanimous, but greatly preponderating.
Hufeland, the great protomedicus of Prussia, reported in favor of its prophylactic action. His report was based on observations of his own and the sum of the testimony of others. In consequence of his report the Prussian government, in 1838, decreed that it should be obligatory on physicians to give Belladonna as a prophylactic whenever scarlatina prevailed as an epidemic.
Pareira endeavors to throw doubt on the arguments and evidence in its favor, but Dr. Stille, of Philadelphia, the most recent writer, speaks as follows (ii. 51):
On a review of the whole subject we feel bound to express the conviction that the virtues of Belladonna as a protective against scarlatina are so far proven that it becomes the duty of practitioners to invoke their aid whenever the disease breaks out in a locality where there are persons liable to the contagion.
The evidence of the prophylactic power of Belladonna will appear stronger if we consider two facts:
1. As Stille remarks, the paucity of the cases of some objectors, and the meagerness of the details furnished by others, deprive their evidence of real weight: and
2. It is notorious that epidemics often differ very widely from each other in characteristic symptoms, even though the same name may be applied to them. Now, if Hahnemann’s reason for giving Belladonna as a prophylactic be correct, Belladonna would only be a prophylactic against an epidemic miasm, the disease resulting from which closely resembled the symptoms produced on the healthy by Belladonna. In an epidemic which did not resemble the effects of Belladonna, that remedy would not be a sure prophylactic.
Hahnemann himself pointed out this fact in his preface to Belladonna. He says:
The property I have discovered in Belladonna, given in a small dose every six or seven days, of being a preservative against scarlatina, as Sydenham, Plenciz and others have described it, was for nineteen years brought into contempt by physicians, who, ignorant that the disease belongs only to children, have confounded it with the purple miliary rash introduced from Belgium in 1801, and have applied to the latter my method, which of course failed. I rejoice, however, that of late years other physicians have distinguished the ancient and true scarlatina, establishing the preservative property of Belladonna in that disease, and have thus rendered justice to my labors, so long misunderstood.
REMEDIES. Little need be added to what has already been said on the subject of Belladonna as a remedy for scarlatina. Its correspondence to the majority of cases in epidemics presenting no peculiar type is very manifest. But epidemics do occur; and we have had several of late years in which the symptoms do not correspond so closely to the symptoms of Belladonna as of some other drug ; as, for example, of Stramonium.
It behooves us, therefore, to avoid here as ever the great error of prescribing according to the name which we may have given to the disease; and to study closely the symptoms of each case, and compare with those of various drugs of the Materia Medica, so as to select that which shall best correspond.
If, now, we have thus chosen Belladonna, this remedy may be sufficient to carry the case through to convalescence. Frequently, however, this will not be so. Tendencies to chronic disease hitherto latent may be aroused in the patient by the scarlatina poison, and may become active. Then we shall require to enter upon a course of treatment of a chronic disease; and it is not probable that Belladonna will be of further service.
This awakening of chronic tendencies often takes place about the third day of the rash. It is of great importance to take it in the beginning. Hence the rule which has been suggested, that on the day above mentioned the careful physician shall carefully examine the patient, with a view of detecting tendencies to chronic disease, and should be prompt to prescribe accordingly. Rhus, Calcarea carbonica, Hepar sulphuris, are remedies likely to be required.
EPILEPSY. In this disease Belladonna has been more successful than perhaps any other one remedy. Some brilliant cures of this terrible disease are on record. In all cases which it has favorably affected, the spasms were accompanied by the general symptoms above recited as characteristic of Belladonna.
The same remarks may be made of puerperal convulsions.
ERYSIPELAS. No mention has yet been made of the use of Belladonna in erysipelas. And yet in the smooth, shining affection, especially of the face and head, it has been of greatest value. Mr. Liston, of London, though not a homeopath, bore testimony to its efficacy in the hands of homeopathists. Its homeopathicity cannot be questioned.